Arabic & Islamic identities, since the first day have been two distinctive features of Palestine. Of course this does not mean that Christians & Jews have never lived in Palestine or they don’t belong to Jerusalem, but it is intended that the Palestinians, for the majority of history, have been Muslims & Arabs. Hence, Muslim Arab Palestinians, have special priority & right to own & live in the land of Palestine. Furthermore, since the seventh century A.H. onwards, Palestine had been under Muslims rule. This fact confirms that Palestine territory just belongs to the Palestinians. Instead, because of ignoring these important issues, the land of Palestine has been dominated by Jews .Thus the Palestinian issue has become to the longest international conflict in the twentieth century.
“Land of Canaan”, is the oldest name for Palestine which is taken from the name of tribes settled in the current Palestine about 2500 B.C. But the word Palestine has come from the word “Palestinians” , the name of a group which came to the south of Gaza from the Crete Island in the Mediterranean Sea, settled there and intercommunicated with Canaanite people . But the followers of Jacob (PBUH), after breaking apart the Palestinians, had won their territory. Some of them, after the death of Solomon (PBUH) (935 B.C.) , established two Jewish states one of which called itself Israel.
Thus, the Land of Canaan, Palestinians and Israel are the historical names for the present-day Palestine.
The name of the other state was Judah (Judas).
The land which we now call it Palestine (occupied Palestine), borders with Lebanon from the north and with the Sinai Peninsula and the Gulf of Aqaba from the south. It reaches to Red Sea, Aden Gulf and the Indian Ocean through the Gulf of Aqaba. Hence, it connects to the most widespread Islamic country, the Saudi Arabia. Palestine has also borders with Jordan from the east incliding the jurdan River and Dead Sea and Syria including the Golan Hights. It connects to the Mediterranean Sea from thre west , through which reaches to Turkey, Cyprus, European countries and the Atlantic Ocean. So, Palestine is ine the neighborhood of both Europe and Africa and is one of the ways to connect the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe.
Palestine is located in the strategical region of Middle East.
Palestine is divided geographically into four regions. They are listed according to their extends as follows:
A) Bir al-saba area ( land of Naqab with the areas of grains) where much of its lands is made up of deserts and sands.
B) The mountainous area where includes the range of Aljalil, AL Khalil, Carmel, Nablus and Jerusalem.
C) Jordan valley (Ghor) where located between Hula Lake and Dead Sea. This region is the lowest spot on earth.
D) Flat areas including the coastal lands, Lebanon borders, Amer Marj lands in the east and Hula in the west.
However, only one third of the Palestine lands have the agricultural value and most of the people live through farming.
Te other geographical features of Palestine are:
1) The weather in Bir Al-saba, Ghor and the coastal lands is too hot in summer. Bir Al-saba suffers from a cold winter but the other two have moderate one. Summer and winter weather in mountainous areas is moderate with heavy rainfalls. In other words, the north of Palestine is mountainous and full of snow and the southern part is flat, but too hot.
2) Jordan River is the most important and the longest river streaming from the Jabal El-sheikh in Syria and after passing Hula Sea and Tabariyyah, reaches to Dead Sea. Yarmouk, Al-Evajeh and Al-Maqta rivers, respectively with the length of 40, 26 and 12 kilometers are of the other rivers of Palestine. Hence, Palestine is benefited from three lakes that the Dead Sea is the largest and the smallest is Hula.
3) Palestine has rich mines of potash, manganese, sodium and bromine. Besides, it has hot-water springs and agricultural products such as beans, oranges, olives, bananas, grains, unripe dates and e.t.c. speaking about potash mines , it is one of the richest countries.